Domestic cars, which nobody knew

In this article, we will continue with the story of the world's only unique, unknown and long-forgotten, experienced domestic cars, which were collected in separate samples from the late 1960s to the beginning of the twenty-first century. in the design offices of major automotive factories and the scientific automotive institute.

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Moscow "Stars" brand "Moskvich"

CThe 1960s was considered the most fruitful phase in the development of the Moscow Small Car Plant (MZMA), when young designers and designers actively started working on new and constantly updated Moskvich car families, which were much in demand in the USSR and first were exported.

In the spring of 1967, for the expansion of the promising model range of MZMA (since 1968 – AZLK – Leninsky Komsomol Automobile Plant), the introduction of a program for the creation of future mass products with different units and an advanced design began. Initially, their experimental versions were put together in one or two copies, which formed a small family with a strange factory that marked "3-5-0". The first two figures meant the planned time of their release – 1973-1975, the third indicated the serial number of the next model.

The first car brand Star. AZLK test engineer Olga Kochneva is in the background. November 1969.

The first capable car in this family was the 96-strong sedan AZLK "Moskvich 3-5-2, Assembled and tested at the end of 1969. To smuggle together on his grille decorated emblem with the inscription star ("Zvezda"), which always drew the attention of motorists who have never seen foreign cars and have solved the important question together: "What kind of car is this?" Now the secret can be revealed: it was an experimentally enlarged version of "Moskvich-408" from 1, 7-liter engine and rectangular headlights. The second was the passenger car 3-5-3, also contributed the Star brand. In 1971 a third star was added to them – an 81-strong sedan 3-5-4 with large windows at the front.

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Star conspired sedan or "Moskvich 3-5-2." Winter 1970

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The classified Star station wagon or Moskvich 3-5-3 AZLK. 1970 years

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The third restyled member of the Star family is "Moskvich 3-5-4". 1971

A year later an attractive silver car appeared. 3-5-5 with a more spacious interior and a trendy design with curved side windows. The intention was to install different engines, a new gearbox and a rear arm suspension. In 1975, until the glorious date of 7 November, the last car of the 3-5-0 family was born – the prototype 3-5-6 with updated body styles, a 1.8-liter engine with 103 power, automatic gearbox and redesigned interior. This so-called "Grand Moskvich" with a pre-aged design could not be pressed into the range between the cars of the VAZ and GAZ.

"Moskvich 3-5-5" – the first traces of fashionable design at AZLK. 1972
AZLK "Moskvich 3-5-6" – dimmed design and US units. 1975

In February 1975 another experienced toxic green avant-garde model was built at AZLK.Moskvich S-1"Or" Meridian-1700TS "with a two-volume body reminiscent of a fashionable and spectacular Swedish car SAAB-99, equipped with a new 1.7-liter engine, McPherson front suspension and BMW rear wheel. striking looks and the novelty of the design made the people responsible for the future of the Soviet car industry very scared.

The most perfect and attractive copy "Moskvich S-1". 1975

A year later, the development of the C-1 model was a mockup. C-3 with a simplified body, designed to replace the "Moskvich-412". It was equipped with an experienced two-liter engine, five-speed gearbox and independent suspension of all wheels. New and expensive car was also ignored.

A failed blue "Moskvich S-3" with a western accent. 1976
Tests of the 110-fold five-door "Moskvich S-3" in the streets of Moscow

VAZ – a symbol of free creativity

Still in the process of construction and technological equipment in the Volzhsky Automobile Plant (VAZ), the independent development of prototypes of future modest and low-cost minicar with front-wheel drive began, which nobody knew then. In the autumn of 1971 the first compact two-door model appeared. VAZ-E1101 "Cheburashka", Which served as a prototype for the future massive Soviet microcar" Oka. "It was equipped with a two-cylinder 50 hp engine, cross-pitch, dual cardan clutches and McPherson front suspension, followed by an option VAZ-2E1101 with a simplified body and increased power up to 55 forces. Third car VAZ-3E1101 "Ladoga"From an everyday appearance was transferred to the Zaporizhia Automobile Plant, where it served as the prototype for the ZAZ-1102 Tavria car.

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A typical "Cheburashka" is a 900-cubic minicar VAZ-E1101. 1971

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The second ascetic front-wheel drive model VAZ-2E1101. 1973

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The VAZ-3E1101 "Ladoga" car from the banks of the Volga is a prototype of the Ukrainian "Tavria". 1976

At the "Autosalon-92" exhibition in Moscow in June, the Volga car factory showed a new car with front-wheel drive VAZ-1151 "Gnome" a length of only 2.5 meters, made on a shortened basis of the serial "Oka" with engines of 28-30 hp and a gearbox with four gears. The own weight was 490 kg, maximum speed – 120 km / h. Originally it was the intention to bring the annual release of "Dwarfs" to 10,000 units, but in those difficult times it was simply not up to him.

Supercompact microcar VAZ-1151 "Dwarf" – a victim of adaptation. 1992

The factory presented a prototype in the same salon. VAZ-1121 "Oka-1"For the promising replacement of microcar" Oka ", but he drew no attention.In 1998, his test heir was demonstrated VAZ-1121 "Oka-2", And a trial version of the second" Oka "appeared in 2003. In addition to the two-cylinder engines, the intention was to install a four-cylinder engine and a five-speed transmission of the VAZ-2108. Due to a lack of production capacity and financial resources, this project was frozen.

Nobody saw the prototype microcar VAZ-1121 "Oka-1". 1992
Beautiful, but underrated car VAZ-1121 "Oka-2". Year 2003

Since the late 1980s, the Volga Automobile Plant has produced massively popular front wheel minicars "Oka", a story of which is beyond the scope of this article. The situation changed only with the appearance in 2004 of a limited series of cars for female drivers. They were 33 strong minicars VAZ-11113L "Oka Lady"Over time, rarities changed, their distinctive features were rare body colors, a two-tone upholstery with a Lada-110 dashboard, a light roof rack and alloy wheels.

Microcar VAZ-11113L "Oka-Lady" for female drivers. 2004

The first result of the agreement between the Volga car factory and the famous German company was the sedan VAZ-2103-Porschewhose external chrome was simply replaced with plastic. In addition, the Porsche company modernized the Moskvich-412 and the suspension for the VAZ-2108, replaced the interior components, installed new bumpers and steering wheels, increased the anti-corrosion resistance and sound insulation of the body.

Resty VAZ-2103: that's all Porsche could do in the USSR in 1976

The rarity of the Moscow Motor Show in 1997 was the normal-looking sedan. VAZ-2115-91 "rotor", Where the location of a conventional engine was taken by a compact rotary piston engine VAZ-415, which produced a capacity of 140 hp with a working volume of 1.3 liters. The maximum speed of the car reached 190 km / h, but the fuel consumption was a record – 12.5 liters per 100 kilometers.

The unique car VAZ-2115-91 with a rotating piston engine. 1997

Mysterious rarities behind the walls of the US.

In the toughest times of the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Scientific Automotive Institute (NATI) was full of work: for science, a few examples of unreal machines slowly being pushed through by profitable external customers.

In 1987, under the leadership of B. M. Fitterman, an already known prototype of an aerodynamic vehicle was built in design studio no. 1 US-0284 "debut 2", Equipped with a streamlined chassis panel with hinged plastic panels, a turbo engine from the Oka and air suspension of all wheels with variable ground clearance.

Prototype machine NAMI-0284 "Debut-2" with air suspension. 1987 year

At the same time Studio 2, led by A. K. Ponomarev, worked on a shortened city car. US-0288 "CD"The main focus of their work was the motto" Maximum usable capacity with minimum dimensions. "The features of" Compact "were the modernized Melitopol engine, which operated on gasoline and hydrogen, the articulated subframe, which is the front part of the supporting frame, the front air suspension, the rear on elastic pneumatics, rotatable front seats and sliding rear seats replaces.

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Unknown to Muscovites experienced city car NAMI-0288 "Compact". 1988 year

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Compact and spacious compact minibus with dual-fuel engine

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The front of the passenger compartment NAMI-0288 with swivel chairs

The development of the previous model was a prototype of a cargo minicar "Compact 2 Compi»With an adapted front end, an extended wheelbase and a removable rear end that can easily be turned into a cargo hold.

Miniature "Compact-2 Compi" in passenger and cargo versions. 1991

The last cars born from the Soviet era were a semi-self-made racing car with four-wheel drive. US-0290 "Orange", Made by NAMI enthusiasts without the use of imported parts.It used the body of the" Tavria ", which had previously been cut off from both extreme sections and in the tubular space between them a 1.6-liter turbocharged engine with a capacity of 180 hp installed.

The result of the creativity of youth is the NAMI-0290 "Orange" with four-wheel drive. 1989
The second is no less "cool" sports car NAMI-0300 "Orange-2". 1990

On the eve of the collapse of the USSR, a simplified version appeared US-0300 "Orange-2"With a 2.3-liter 180-unit from the" Volga "GAZ-3110 and locking differences, the speed reached 210 km / h, and both cars only participated in a few regional races.

In the nineties, a two-seater sports convertible fell in the direction of the passenger.ode", Collected through the efforts of engineers NAMI and the Italian high-tech company Engines Engineering.It was based on the chassis of the 80-strong sedan VAZ-2106 with suspension of the VAZ-2101, windscreen of the VAZ-2108, etc. The car weighed 850 kg and reached 170 km / h It was well received at the show in Italy, but there was no one who financed the release in Russia.

Spectacular Russian-Italian cabriolet "Ode" with units of VAZ. 1994

The second important event was the creation on behalf of the double cabriolet "Kom-design" Retro convertible, made in the popular retro style. He was assembled in the US on the platform of the VAZ-2106 with a new double fiberglass body with a removable lid.

In this roadster it is difficult to recognize the hand of designers NAMI and VAZ units. 1992

Prestigious heirs of us

In the mid-1990s, Prestige-NAMI, a design agency that emerged under US, introduced several original cars with unusual and rather controversial but always attractive and bold forms. The mechanical part for them was developed in NAMI and assembled experimental constructions in the institute factory. The most successful were considered as daring tuning performance of the new "Volga": the car of the highest class "prestige"With the front in the form of Makovok Moscow churches, as well as extended versions – escort car"train"And limousine"luxury»With two armchairs and two fold-out sofas.

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Luxury sedan "Prestige" with a bar and a refrigerator on the chassis of the GAZ-3110 "Volga". 1995

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Escort car "Cortege" on the Volga GAZ-3102 extended with a meter chassis. 1997

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The car "Cortege" with a spacious cabin for transport and security of VIPs

In the 1990s, the most impressive achievement of our designers was considered a huge retro car. "Bylina"On units 75-strong" Niva "Initially, the plan was to equip it with two engines with a total capacity of 280 hp, but even bridges from the Bryansk van would not have withstood them in a narrow and tight body. "Niva" succeeded with "blown-up" fiberglass wings and six point chucks to squeeze the bar with a stereo system.The car developed a speed of 140 km / h and weighed two tons without cargo.

The result of the free creativity of Russian designers is a very strange construction of the Bylina. 1997
When installing a 280 hp engine, the four-person "Bylina" with a bodywork from the "Niva" could weigh four tons.

Nothing like that existed in those years, not only in Russia, but also in world design.

In the title photo – Massive supercar "Bylina", which recorded different styles from different eras.

To be continued