Developed oral insulin capsule to replace injections in diabetic patients
American scientists developed a capsule with medication that can give oral doses of insulin and that can replace the injections that people with type 2 diabetes should take every day.
The study published in the February 8 issue of the journal Science reported on the capsule, about the size of a cranberry and with a needle made from compressed insulin.
In animal experiments, the researchers showed that they were able to administer sufficient insulin to lower blood sugar levels to levels comparable to those injected through the skin.
The needle consisted of compressed and lyophilized insulin at the tip and the shaft of the biodegradable needle. The needle is connected to a compressed spring that is installed in a sugar disc, according to the study.
When the capsule is swallowed, the water in the stomach dissolves the sugar disc, releasing the spring and injecting the needle into the stomach wall. The wall of the stomach does not have pain receptors.
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) were inspired by a turtle called the leopard tortoise. The tortoise with a high, steep shell dome can straighten when rolling on its back.
They created a similar shape for the capsule that can be directed to ensure that the needle is in contact with the inside of the stomach.
In this study, it takes about an hour before the insulin is completely released into the bloodstream.
In the pigs tests, the researchers demonstrated that they could successfully deliver up to 300 micrograms of insulin. Later they managed to increase the dose to 5 milligrams, comparable to the amount that a patient with type 2 diabetes would have to inject.
"Our motivation is to make it easier for patients to take medication, especially those requiring an injection," says coauthor Giovanni Traverso, assistant professor at Brigham and Women & # 39; s Hospital and guest scientist at MIT.
"The classic is insulin, but there are many more," said Traverso.