How does olive oil protect the heart?

Foods that are rich in unsaturated fats, such as olive oil, can protect against cardiovascular diseases, according to a study by researchers from the Keenan Research Center for Biomedical Science (KRCBS) at St. Michael's Hospital. United States) and that has been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Specifically, apolipoprotein A-IV, known as ApoA-IV, is a plasma protein and its level increases after food digestion, particularly that rich in unsaturated fats, such as olive oil. It has been reported that higher levels of ApoA-IV in the blood are associated with lower cardiovascular disease.

In addition, experts have shown that ApoA-IV is a factor that inhibits platelets, small blood cells that play a key role in multiple diseases, especially bleeding and cardiovascular disease. These new findings suggest that ApoA-IV is a glycoprotein blocker on the surface of platelet GPIIbIIIa, also called integrin aIIb3, which is a platelet receptor that is needed to be grouped in the blood, platelet aggregation.

This aggregation of platelets can cause occlusion of the blood vessel that blocks blood flow and leads to thrombosis, which is the most common cause of death and morbidity worldwide. "Platelet aggregation can save lives because it can stop bleeding in damaged blood vessels, but we generally do not want platelets to block blood flow in blood vessels because it causes thrombosis and if blood vessel occlusion occurs in the heart or brain, it can be a heart attack, cause a stroke or death, "explained the chief director of the research, Heyu Ni.

To bind one platelet to another, the platelet receptor integrin aIIb3 first binds to fibrinogen, an abundant protein that binds platelets in the blood, while the fibrinogen molecules bind to another integrin aIIb3 in a second platelet. Thus, fibrinogen and probably also other proteins allow many platelets to bind, leading to platelet aggregation.

Slow down atherosclerosis

By studying laboratory and human models, experts have shown that ApoA-IV integrin can bind aIIb3 and block fibrinogen-binding, decreasing platelet aggregation in a vessel. They have also observed that the ApoA IV protein can also change shape to accommodate increased blood flow and become more effective in protecting blood vessels from complete blockage.

After these results, scientists have been "enthusiastic" because they have shown that foods with high unsaturated fats, together with sufficient sleep patterns, create the perfect combination for ApoA-IV protein to play a positive role in reducing the risk. on cardiovascular diseases.