(Updated: 17:57 12.10.2018)
MOSCOW, October 12 – RIA news. The first large-scale test of Russian immunohistochemical laboratories showed that a quarter of them often make incorrect diagnoses when looking for traces of mutations associated with the development of breast cancer. It has been reported by the Center for Quality Control IGH research FSBEU DPO RMANPO.
"For diseases such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer or lung cancer, the quality of IHC studies is particularly important for determining the correct diagnosis and choice of treatment tactics." By applying quality control, laboratories can monitor and improve the quality of the services offered, "said academic George Frank, head of freelance specialist, pathologist, Russian Ministry of Health.
Today, breast cancer remains the most common type of malignant tumor in women. According to WHO estimates, about 500,000 women die each year. The problem with the treatment of breast cancer is that the detection of breast cancer in the early stages of development is difficult because of the imperfection of diagnostic methods – mammography correctly detects only in 12% of cases.
Genetically, studies of recent years show that breast tumors develop most often in women carrying mutations in a small set of genes, such as HER2, BRCA, ESR1, and a number of other DNA sites responsible for repairing damaged chromosomes and "self-destructive" "cells in fatal degradation. genome.
Knowing exactly which genes contain damage is crucial for the selection of therapy for the treatment of cancer, because different sets of mutations significantly change the way cancer cells respond to chemotherapy.
On the territory of Russia, as noted by Frank, there are currently ten IGH laboratories claiming that they have opportunities for the early diagnosis of different types of breast cancer and the search for traces of mutations in these genes.
In April of this year, Frank and other specialists at the quality control center carried out a first large-scale test of their work, assessing how well 29 regional laboratories deal with the search for mutations in the ESR1 and HER2 genes, with which some of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer are associated.
It turned out that in the first case serious errors were made in 26% of the laboratories and in the second case in 19% of the laboratories. In general, this is a fairly good indicator: about 29% of IHC laboratories in Great Britain, France and the United States have serious problems with their work.
Scientists hope that by such tests Russia will reach the Western level as an early diagnosis of cancer and survival of the patient, which today is about 70%. In Russia, this figure is still considerably lower – 56% and 54%. As the observations of experts show, they both grow quite quickly – for example, last year alone, the quality of cancer detection increased by 3.4%.
The Center will carry out the next round of quality controls in the fourth quarter of this year. It will focus on the markers used in the diagnosis of lung cancer associated with the KRT7, KRT5 / 6, TTF1 genes.