The controversial trial of leading Catalan separatists begins in Madrid. He is part of a long spiral of mutual provocation between the Spanish central government and Catalonia. A chronology.
The judicial process against leading Catalan separatists begins on Tuesday in Madrid with a legal review of a political drama that culminated with the proclamation of independence in October 2017. However, the conflict between Barcelona and Madrid goes much further back. The tensions between Catalonia and Spain have historical reasons.
Historical roots of the Catalonia conflict
In the 18th century: beginning of disgrace
The Catalan national holiday on 11 September tells a bloody story: On September 11, 1714, the city of Barcelona capitulated after a devastating attack by the Spanish crown. Catalonia had supported the Habsburg throne pretender in the Spanish War of Succession. At that time, Barcelona lost its legal constitution. The national holiday is still reminiscent of this shame, which has dug deep into the collective consciousness.
In the 19th century: origin of the hateful hymn
In the second half of the 19th century, the Catalan anthem was created, which is about the peasant uprising in 1640. The text testifies to the revulsion against Madrid and the Castile it represents, which is described as "pretentious" and "haughty". Even here you will find the vague announcement of independence: "The time will come when we saw our chains."
1936-1939: Spanish Civil War
During the Spanish Civil War, Catalonia was the stronghold of the Republicans and the Left, who fought against fascism. The Catalans had already achieved their first autonomy in 1932 following the proclamation of the republic. Among other things, their cultural and linguistic independence should be protected. The autonomy applies – with an interruption – until the year 1939, when Franco's troops conquer Catalonia. in the franquismo every statement of Catalan nationalism is forbidden and brutally persecuted.
1950s and 60s: slow strengthening of the Catalan movement
In the mid-twentieth century, the Catalan quest for democracy and autonomy grew stronger and stronger. Antifranquism begins to grow. The constitution of 1978 created a liberal-democratic social order after the end of the Franco dictatorship in Spain; This is also accepted in Catalonia majority.