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Some theories that go beyond the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new ultra-light particles, the mass of which is much smaller than the lightest known to science. They have a very weak interaction with ordinary matter, so they are difficult to detect with the help of collars and detectors for dark matter. In the new work, however, scientists have shown that such particles can be detected in the signals of gravitational waves as a result of fusing black holes. Article researchers published on the site preprints articles ArXiv.org.
Nature consists of two kinds of particles, of which physicists call fermions (they form solid matter) and the other bosons (they are responsible for the dissemination of the interaction). Ultralight bosons can form large condensates around rapidly rotating black holes in a process called superradiance. The black hole with such a forest cloud is sometimes called the "gravity" atom, because its configuration is very similar to the proton-electron structure in the hydrogen atom, but on a much larger scale.
In the case of a hydrogen atom, transitions between these different levels of energy can be induced by exposure of the laser to the atom. When the laser energy corresponds exactly, the electron can "jump" from one state to another. A similar effect can occur for a gravity atom if it is part of a pair of black holes circling around each other. In this case, the gravitational influence of the second black hole will play the role of a "laser" and cause transitions between the energy states of the forest cloud.
In recent years, physicists have been able to measure the gravitational waves that occur when two black holes merge. As scientists now demonstrate, the presence of transitions of energy levels in a hypothetical forest cloud will cause a characteristic "imprint" in the signals of gravitational waves created by such merging black holes. Observation of such a & # 39; footprint & # 39; would be an important confirmation for theories that predict ultra-light forest particles. Although current observations of gravitational waves are not sensitive enough to detect the effect, this will be the goal of future experiments.